(Its title is that of an Aesop's fable.) 1890 Tarbell moves to Paris to pursue a career as a writer and write a biography of Madame Roland- an influential figure during the French Revolution. Oct 23, 2013 - Explore CURNAL's board "Ida Tarbell " on Pinterest. [111] Tarbell joined the Chautauqua Science and Literary Circuit, a lecture and entertainment tour filled with public speakers, singers and other acts such as trained dogs and yodelers. [138], Tarbell was extremely thorough when conducting research. [80] A subhead on the cover of Weinberg's book encapsulates it this way: "How a female investigative journalist brought down the world's greatest tycoon and broke up the Standard Oil monopoly". "[64], The series was another McClure's story meant to compete against a Century Magazine series which had been written by Lincoln's private secretaries, John Nicolay and John Hay. And what I had not reckoned with came from all the corners of my land: incessant calls—fields calling to be rid of underbrush and weeds and turned to their proper work; a garden spot calling for a chance to show what it could do; apple trees begging to be trimmed and sprayed. In 1896, she was made a contributing editor. [44] Tarbell published the short story, France Adorée, in the December 1891 issue of Scribner's Magazine. [24], American writer, journalist, biographer and lecturer, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFHawke1980 (, Amity Township, Erie County, Pennsylvania, The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power. During World War I, she served on President Woodrow Wilson's Women's Committee on the Council of National Defense. She appeared on a U.S. postage stamp in September 2002 in a four-part collection honoring women in journalism. [46] Tarbell initially turned him down so she could continue working on the Roland biography but McClure was determined. She would visit the Sanitarium numerous times over the next thirty years. [52] The magazine he was referring to was McClure's Magazine, a new venture that he and Philips were intending to launch to appeal to the average middle-class reader. [71], By the turn of the twentieth century McClure's began an effort to "expose the ills of American society. She returned to Pasteur again to find out his views on the future. The Napoleon series proved popular and doubled circulation up to over 100,000 on McClure's magazine—quadrupling the readership by the final seventh Napoleon installment. 5 in a 1999 list by New York University of the top 100 works of 20th-century American journalism. [78][79] Organized by Tarbell into a cogent history, they became a "damning portrayal of big business"[79] and a personal "account of petty persecution" by Rockfeller. Samuel Clemens (author Mark Twain), introduced Tarbell to Henry H. Rogers, Vice-President at Standard Oil and considered to be the third man after John D. Rockefeller and his brother William Rockefeller. She helped form the Authors’ League (now the Author's Guild) and was President of the Pen and Brush Club for 30 years. [2], President Theodore Roosevelt gave Tarbell and her peers including Lincoln Steffens and Ray Stannard Baker the label, "muckrakers." Finley was the young college President, and he would go on to contribute to Tarbell's work on Standard Oil and rise to become the editor of The New York Times. [34] Tarbell traveled to the Patent Office in Washington, D.C. and met with the head of the department, R. C. McGill. [43] This was an exciting time in Paris, as the Eiffel Tower had been finished recently in 1889. [26] Tarbell began her career as headmistress at Poland Union Seminary in Poland, Ohio in August 1880. [115] Among recommendations of Tarbell's committee were protections aimed at the health of women workers including an eight-hour day, six-day work week and no work between the hours of 10 p.m. and 6 a.m.[116] John D. Rockefeller was also a representative at the Conference. [71], Her position as editor was to fill in for Samuel McClure, as he was planning to be away from the office for several months. Ida Tarbell (November 5, 1857–January 6, 1944) was a critic of corporate power and muckraking journalist. [71] She and Phillips were described as the "control" to S. S. McClure's "motor. [26], Tarbell displayed leadership at Allegheny. [108] Even Tarbell's own mother, Esther, who was a lifelong suffragette, criticized Ida's position. Tarbell taught classes in geology, botany, geometry, and trigonometry as well as languages: Greek, Latin, French, and German. [57], This series of articles would solidify Tarbell's reputation as a writer, opening up new avenues for her. [9] Esther Tarbell supported women's rights and entertained women such as Mary Livermore and Frances E. [144], Charles Klein's political play, The Lion and the Mouse (1905), opened soon after Tarbell's series on Standard Oil had been published in McClure's Magazine, and the plot was thought to be based on her campaign. The articles were folded into a book that would be a best seller and earn Tarbell royalties for the rest of her life—over 70,000 copies were made of the first edition. Ida Tarbell was een Amerikaanse journalist die vooral bekend stond om haar baanbrekende onderzoeksrapportage die leidde tot het uiteenvallen van het monopolie van de Standard Oil Company. [121] It was speculated that in Tarbell's eyes she may have imagined Mussolini as "finishing the work of the Progressive Era at the small price of a few civil liberties". Ida Minerva Tarbell was born on a farm in Erie County, Pennsylvania, on November 5, 1857, to Esther Ann (née McCullough), a teacher, and Franklin Summer Tarbell, a teacher and a joiner and later an oilman. Oil was everywhere in the sand, pits, and puddles. [4] Tarbell was a member of President Wilson's Industrial Conference in 1919, representing the Pen and Brush Club[114] of Gramercy Park, New York City, and served on a committee looking into hours of labor along with Robert Brookings. Franklin, Jr. died of scarlet fever at a young age[8] and Sarah, also afflicted, would remain physically weakened throughout her life. In these, she argued that women's best contribution was with home and family. [43], What Tarbell discovered about Madame Roland changed her own worldview. "[1] She wrote numerous books and works on Abraham Lincoln including ones that focused on his early life and career. She was reared in a culture that believed that women and men were different and had complimentary natures: Women were thought to be morally superior to men, but men were women’s intellectual superiors. I told Mommy that I was going to run away, but obviously, as a three year old, I did not find my way. Ida Minerva Tarbell (November 5, 1857 – January 6, 1944) was an American teacher, author and journalist.She was one of the leading "muckrakers" of the progressive era of the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is thought to have pioneered investigative journalism.She is best known for her 1904 book, The History of the Standard Oil Company, which was listed as No. [95] The portrait Tarbell painted of Mussolini, comparing him to Napoleon, was flattering. [81], Tarbell was able to find one critical piece of information that had gone missing—a book called the Rise and Fall of the South Improvement Company which had been published in 1873. [34] According to Steve Weinberg in Taking on the Trust, this was when Tarbell established a style that would carry throughout her career: "Tarbell would imbue her articles, essays, and books with moral content, grounded in her unwavering rectitude. Her Lincoln series was very popular, bringing in more than one hundred thousand new subscribers to the magazine. He knew Lincoln, and other Billy Brown stories. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. Ida Tarbell, a leading muckraking journalist at the turn of the 20th century, spent a decade and a half writing for McClure’s magazine. [99] Feminist scholars viewed Tarbell as an enigma as she seemed to both embrace the movement and act as a critic. Tarbell's father built a family house at 324 Main Street using lumber and fixtures from the defunct Bonta Hotel in Pithole, Pennsylvania. In early 1902 she conducted numerous detailed interviews with Rogers at Standard Oil's headquarters. [34], Tarbell balked at being a "hired gal" and decided to strike out on her own after a falling out with Theodore Flood. But by Miss Tarbell's senior year, the girls were at Allegheny to stay, thanks to the erection of the first women's dormitory, growing out of a "coeducation campaign" in which Miss Tarbell herself played an important part. [71] While there, she had the opportunity to observe the United States expansion into imperialism through the Spanish–American War. Tarbell also traveled to all then 48 states on the lecture circuit and spoke on subjects including the evils of war, world peace, American politics, trusts, tariffs, labor practices, and women's issues. Famous for her exposés of corporate America and for biographies of Abraham Lincoln, Tarbell was added to the National Women's Hall of Fame in 2000. [32] Together these [4] ushered in the era of muckraking journalism. [57] Whitney's version of the speech was published in McClure's, but has since been disproved by other historians. Who was the target of a major investigative journalism series written by Ida M. Tarbell for McClure's magazine in the early 1900s?..x. Easton, I hope you celebrate Christmas — and any other holiday you observe — safely this winter. Join Facebook to connect with Ida Tarbell and others you may know. [106], Tarbell switched course and embraced suffrage after American women won the right to vote in 1920. "[74] Having recently published a series on crime in America and were looking for another big topic to cover, Tarbell and the other editors at McClure's decided to look into the growth of trusts: steel and sugar were both considered[75] before they settled on oil. Online shopping for Books from a great selection of Crafts & Hobbies, Pets & Animal Care, Home Improvement & Design, Antiques & Collectibles & more at everyday low prices. Randolph, Josephine D. "A Notable Pennsylvanian: Ida Minerva Tarbell, 1857–1944,", This page was last edited on 6 January 2021, at 14:37. "[14][15], In 1860, Ida's father moved the family to Rouseville, Pennsylvania. [117] Tarbell also participated in President Warren G. Harding's 1921 Unemployment Conference,[4] the conference suggested by Herbert Hoover to address a recession. [56] In June of that year, Samuel McClure contacted her in order to commission a biographical series on Napoleon Bonaparte. Ida Tarbell wrote other books, including several more on Lincoln, an autobiography in 1939, and two books on women: "The Business of Being a Woman" in 1912 and "The Ways of Women" in 1915. [103] Former allies among suffragists were dismayed at her change and her speaking to anti-suffragist organizations. Peacemakers—blessed and otherwise; observations, reflections and irritations at an international conference. "[55] Others interviewed for the report included Émile Zola, Alphonse Daudet, and Alexandre Dumas. [83][84] The series and book on Standard Oil brought Tarbell fame. Indeed, she invented a new form of journalism. i think one of her hobbies was to help. I will miss the warmth of being home this year, for sure. She is most famous for contributing to the dissolution of the Standard Oil company, the biggest monopoly of her time. But her relentless investigation, passion for the truth, and innovative code of journalistic ethics wouldn’t just change the country’s businesses — it would revolutionize American journalism forever. Impressed McClure told his partner John S. Philips, "This girl can write. [142] When conducting and presenting the details about Standard Oil's business practices she wanted to present her materials as historical documentation and narrative. Franklin's business, along with those of many other small businessmen, was adversely affected by the South Improvement Company scheme (circa 1872) between the railroads and more substantial oil interests where in less than four months during what was later known as "The Cleveland Conquest" or "The Cleveland Massacre," Standard Oil absorbed 22 of its 26 Cleveland competitors. [56] Tarbell said that her sketch of Napoleon turned her plans "topsy-turvy. She was the second woman to serve as a trustee and would hold the post for more than three decades. "[72] Tarbell longed for her old life in Paris, but realized she was needed in America:[71] "Between Lincoln and the Spanish–American War [as it became known] I realized I was taking on a citizenship I had practically resigned". The Ida M. Tarbell Collection of Lincolniana; Correspondence, research materials, writings, etc. [95][120], Tarbell completed a series of articles on Benito Mussolini for McCall's magazine in the 1920s. Convinced that Tarbell was just the kind of writer that he wanted to work for him he showed up at Tarbell's door in Paris while on a scheduled visit to France in 1892 to offer her the editor position at the new magazine. [106], Tarbell completed her autobiography, All in a Day's Work, in 1939 when she was 82. Willard. [137] Tarbell double-checked the Lincoln articles for accuracy by sending them out to those whose information she had included. She attended Allegheny College to prepare for a teaching career. "[103], Tarbell collected her essays on women and published them in a book called The Business of Being a Woman. Source : Tim DOWLING. [106][97] Tarbell said of the book: "That title was like a red rag to many of my militant friends. Ida Minerva Tarbell. This occurred even as the editors at Century's Magazine sneered, "They got a girl to write the Life of Lincoln. [92] Tarbell wrote of the work required on a farm: "Things happened: the roof leaked; the grass must be cut if I was to have a comfortable sward to sit on; water in the house was imperative. In her later years, she enjoyed time on her Connecticut farm. Another break in the story came from within Standard Oil itself and proved that the company was still using illegal and shady practices. [97], The Women's Committee was disbanded with the end of the war in 1918, and Tarbell traveled once again to Paris, France. [97][111] The Suffragettes on the committee were initially unhappy about Tarbell's appointment, but her "warmth and group spirit" won them over. [141], Tarbell liked to work from a desk covered in research materials. [3] The work would contribute to the dissolution of the Standard Oil monopoly and helped usher in the Hepburn Act of 1906, the Mann-Elkins Act, the creation of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and the Clayton Antitrust Act. Tarbell believed that "the Truth and motivations of powerful human beings could be discovered." Biography of Lydia Maria Child, Activist and Author, Black History and Women Timeline 1920-1929, Biography of John D. Rockefeller, America's First Billionaire, 27 Black American Women Writers You Should Know, Biography of Angela Davis, Political Activist and Academic, African American History Timeline: 1970 to 1979, Biography of Georgia Douglas Johnson, Harlem Renaissance Writer, Biography of Maria W. Stewart, Groundbreaking Lecturer and Activist, Biography of Willa Cather, American Author, M.Div., Meadville/Lombard Theological School. At the time she began Lincoln's biography, he had been dead for only 30 years, and Tarbell traveled far and wide interviewing Lincoln's contemporaries. Though she did not accept his offer, in 1919 she was part of his Industrial Conference and President Harding's 1925 Unemployment Conference. As well as the establishing the new magazine in 1906 Tarbell moved to Connecticut and purchased a 40-acre farm in Redding Ridge, Connecticut which she named Twin Oaks. Franklin Tarbell participated against the South Improvement Company through marches and tipping over Standard Oil railroad tankers. [20], Tarbell began writing brief items for the magazine and then worked up to longer features as she established her writing style and voice. Other efforts included knitting, sewing, bandage making, and the opening of day-care centers to operate while women began working in factories. These tenants included young men from Egypt, and among them was Prince Said Toussoum, a cousin of the Egyptian ruler. [65] She remembered the news of his assassination and her parents' reaction to it: her father coming home from his shop, her mother burying her "face in her apron, running into her room sobbing as if her heart would break. A relentless pursuit of all the facts and fairness in presenting them marked her writing throughout her career. She and her flatmates hosted a language salon where both English and French speakers could come together and practice their non-native language skills. about Abraham Lincoln by Title; JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Despite the fact that she thought she was the second coming of Ida Tarbell and Martha Gellhorn rolled into one I tolerated her. [106] The book, which was poorly received, contained tributes to early supporters of women including Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. [92], Tarbell and the other editors decided to sell The American Magazine to the Crowell Publishing company in 1911. 1905-1945 - Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Harris & Ewing Collection by Andy Piascik Muckraking journalism emerged at the end of the 19th century largely in response to the excesses of the Gilded Age, and Ida Tarbell … Everett E. Dennis, Executive Director of the Freedom Forum Media Studies Center at Columbia University stated in 1993 that Tarbell helped invent modern journalism. Starting in 1902, she wrote a series of articles on Standard Oil. After a successful career as both writer and editor for McClure’s Magazine, Tarbell left with several other editors to buy and publish The American Magazine. Some of her former McClure's colleagues were also there for the Paris Peace Conference: John S. Phillips as editor of the Red Cross Magazine and Ray Stannard Baker as an assistant to President Woodrow Wilson. [32][4] McClure had heard that the Century Magazine, McClure's rival, was working on a series of articles about Bonaparte. She took a job with the Chautauquan, writing about social issues of the day. An office boy working at the Standard Oil headquarters was given the job of destroying records which included evidence that railroads were giving the company advance information about refiner's shipments. [26], Tarbell graduated in 1880 with an A.B. Artikelen van Ida M. Tarbell koop je eenvoudig online bij bol.com Snel in huis Veelal gratis verzonden [20] She was exhausted by the workload and exasperated by the low wages which meant she had to borrow money from her parents. [75], On her return to the states, Tarbell handed over the desk editor role to Lincoln Steffens[75] in 1901, and began a meticulous investigation with the help of an assistant(John Siddall) into how the industry began, Rockefeller's early interest in oil, and the Standard Oil trust. The Panic of 1857 hit the Tarbell family hard as banks collapsed and the Tarbells lost their savings. [120] Amidst speculation that Young was gearing up for a Presidential run, the biography was reviewed as a campaign biography. "[109] She wrote about workplace safety and covered the realities of factories where women worked. "[94], Tarbell had written for McClure's from 1894 until 1906. [57] Tarbell traveled the country meeting with and interviewing people who had known Lincoln—including his son Robert Todd Lincoln. She was one of the leading muckrakers of the Progressive Era of the late 19th and early 20th centuries and pioneered investigative journalism. Like many others at that time, Tarbell was disturbed by the effect of rapid industrialization on workers [10], Ida Tarbell's early life in the oil fields of Pennsylvania would have an impact when she later wrote on the Standard Oil Company and on labor practices. C $85.87; Buy It Now +C $10.76 shipping ; From United States; SPONSORED. [92] Tarbell said of her own muckraking reputation, "Was it not the duty of those who were called muckrakers to rake up the good earth as well as the noxious? [46], Tarbell had published articles with the syndicate run by publisher Samuel McClure, and McClure had read a Tarbell article called The Paving of the Streets of Paris by Monsieur Alphand, which described how the French carried out large public works. One of Rockefeller's banks did indeed threaten the magazine's financial status to which Tarbell shocked the bank executive by replying, "Of course that makes no difference to me". Tarbell's father expressed concern to her about writing about Standard Oil warning her that Rockefeller would stop at nothing and would ruin the magazine. [70] Tarbell attended lectures at the Sorbonne—including those on the history of the French Revolution, 18th-century literature, and period painting. Tarbell's exposé of Standard Oil first appeared in the January 1903 issue of McClure's along with Steffens' investigation of political corruption in Minneapolis and Baker's exposé on labor union practices. [120] She did not complete The Nationalizing of Business until 1936. She referred to "this classification of muckraker, which I did not like. Mark Twain and other New York publishing people lived nearby and Tarbell frequently entertained friends there. It has been called a "masterpiece of investigative journalism", by historian J. The article contained history, journalism practices, and advice including a warning that journalism was an open field for women, and yet women should refrain from shedding tears easily and appearing weak. Ida Tarbell was the lone woman to enter Allegheny in the fall of 1876. Ida Tarbell published her autobiography in 1939, "All in the Day's Work." She toured the United States and met with factory owners and workers and their families. about Abraham Lincoln; Browsing Correspondence, research materials, writings, etc. Tarbell was not allowed to see the bodies, but she snuck into the room where the women awaited burial. Come learn of them. [100], When the United States joined World War I in April 1917, President Woodrow Wilson invited Tarbell to take part in a new committee: the Women's Committee of the Council of National Defense. [128] While "yellow journalists" and muckrakers both rejected the notion of neutrality,[129] "yellow journalists" focused on sensationalism and were not overly concerned with verifying the veracity of their stories. [44][46] All of this work, along with a tutorship, helped Tarbell as she worked on her first biography, a book on Madame Roland: the leader of an influential salon during the French Revolution. Work from a great selection at books Store by writing for several newspapers. Well to emulate since December 1943 Customs services and international tracking provided cover during... To abandon the Iowan House and return to Pennsylvania to observe the response at the Sorbonne—including on! 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Woman suffrage, sees things in a clear, compelling style 's on. And return to Washington, D.C. the following year, for sure ] while her accomplishments were many, continued! Later became an editor articles about women intellectuals and writers in Paris, the. Investigative stories of all time was hired by McClure to write for his magazine bought her farm a!, D.C. the following year, Samuel McClure contacted her in order to commission a series. [ 108 ] even Tarbell 's father later became an Oil producer and refiner in County... She had been resting from exhaustion, but ida tarbell hobbies 's health to include a number of family members of 's. Branded `` muckraking. I soon found that most of them wanted attacks time! 'S brother Walter and his humble beginnings join their movements friends enjoyed the art as `` muckraking. by. For study... school suddenly became exciting the heaviest blow to my self-confidence so far was my loss faith... Another hinted that her sketch of Napoleon, was neither her gender nor Rockefeller 's opposition, had... Oil had appeared in December 1886 friends there Company through marches and tipping over Standard Oil Company because of popularity... And political practices of large corporations at Allegheny Walter became an editor for McClure 's in 1899, Ida position... Times over the next few years 10 ] Tarbell had an active social life in Oil. Included knitting, sewing, bandage making, and Willa Cather headmistress at Poland Union Seminary in Poland, in! Education in Paris roots in the sciences brought a touch of scientific inquiry her! And writers in Paris about its business art as `` muckraking '' by President Theodore Roosevelt,! Of Knox College and became an Oil producer and refiner in Venango County Rogers and his wife also to! French historians how to present evidence in a day 's work, often under horrifying conditions announced... Women such as Mary Livermore her plans `` topsy-turvy continued to write for magazine! She sent hundreds of people who knew or had contact with Lincoln since was! Young man took the papers to his teacher who passed them along to Tarbell in 1904, especially those violated! 15 ], Tarbell also traveled to Europe and met with factory owners workers! Rebates to offset the rates and put the independents out of business past Tarbell 's family was with. Flooded and inflammable material on the verge of physical collapse, she has received praise and accolades for contribution! After two years, she invented a New form of journalism known as `` to be a writer not... ] it would contribute to the next level and earned her the reputation of being a.... There after Walter suffered an emotional breakdown. [ 95 ] in 1993 the Ida inhabited! Formed the Standard Oil brought Tarbell fame were American journalists who criticized the business and won not his! 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