Model results indicated that the sea otter population of Southeast Alaska increased from 13,221 otters in 2003 (CI = 9,990–16,828) to 25,584 otters in 2011 (CI = 18,739–33,163). A. The sea urchin population was reduced by a density-independent factor that had a negative effect on embryo development. Abiotic factors include sunlight, temperature, moisture, wind or water currents, soil type, and nutrient availability. ... Other Biotic Factors. B. Since 2013, massive numbers of sea stars have died along the Pacific coast from Mexico to Alaska, affecting 19 species. Body size and temperature are the major factors explaining metabolic rate, and the additional factor of pH is a major driver at the biochemical level. Three species have … Ocean ecosystems are impacted by abiotic factors in ways that may be different from terrestrial ecosystems. Cidaroids and echinothuriids are predominantly deep-sea groups ( Hyman, 1955 ). These three factors have frequently been found to interact, complicating the formulation of broad models predicting metabolic rates and hence ecological functioning. ... sea urchins, which have no other natural predators. 3. Urchins typically range in size from 3 to 10 cm (1 to 4 in), although the largest species can reach up to 36 cm (14 in). The presence of adult red sea urchins was negatively correlated with adult red abalone at a fine scale (2 × 5 m) in sites in northern California, while purple sea urchin abundance was not impacted (Karpov et al., 2001). C. Biotic factors include plants, animals, fungi, algae, and bacteria. This, in turn, would drive out most other species. The name "urchin" is an old word for hedgehog, which sea urchins resemble; they have archaically been called sea hedgehogs. Carrying capacity can be defined as a species’ average population size in a particular habitat. Limiting factors determine the carrying capacity of a population. Spatiotemporal Variation in Abundance, Trends, and Carrying Capacity. Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus Sea urchin ∼500–10 000 ppmv Decreased fertilization rates, impacts larval development Sea urchins, however, are resistant to starvation and can utilize dissolved nutrients (Pearse et al., 1970). Sea urchin Sea urchin pH ∼6.2–7.3 High sensitivity inferred from lack of pH regulation and passive buffering via test dissolution during emersion cf. Earth’s climate varies by latitude and season and is changing rapidly by telling two human impact stories: global warming and ozone layer depletion. The species population size is limited by environmental factors like adequate food, shelter, water, and mates. If sea stars were removed from a coral reef community, mussel and sea urchin populations would have explosive growth. The spatial distribution of kelp (Laminaria hyperborea) and sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) in the NE Atlantic are highly related to physical factors and to temporal changes in temperature. Sea urchin persistence was also related to the … This represents a regional annual growth rate of approximately 8.6% over an 8‐year period. 2. On a large scale, we identified borders for kelp recovery and sea urchin persistence along the north-south gradient. in sea urchin abundance seen between 1980 and 1990? Burnett et al., Spicer (1995); Miles et al. If these needs are not met, the population will decrease until the resource rebounds. Biotic and abiotic factors shape a species’ relationship to its environment by identifying several of these factors for a given organism. Sea urchins that have a low capacity to feed, a low growth rate, high survival rate and non-feeding development and brooding would be predicted to occur in this habitat. 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